The Invention of the Passport: Surveillance, Citizenship and the State ( Cambridge Studies in Law and Society) [John Torpey] on *FREE* shipping. Daniel Nordman THE INVENTION OF THE PASSPORT Surveillance, Citizenship and the State John Torpey University of California, Irvine □H CAMBRIDGE. The Invention of the Passport: Surveillance, Citizenship and the State. Front Cover · John Torpey, Professor of Sociology John Torpey. Cambridge University .
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Surveillance, Citizenship, and the State, which examines the institution of the modern passport. On 22 Junethe city’s mayor issued an order enjoining the Parisian citizenry to permit the exit from the city of those equipped with passports, which he promised would be issued with “discretion and prudence.
This book examines some of the background to such efforts to iden- tify and track the movements of foreigners. To this measure Delacroix replied simply that “it would dishonor the Assembly to pro- pose such an article for its deliberation,” and the matter was disposed of.
While it may be difficult for states to control movement outside their own borders, this has scarcely kept them from trying to implement such controls, and they may be able to do so effectively mainly because of their capacity to distribute rewards and punishments at home when the traveler returns. This original study combines theory and empirical data in questioning how and why states have established the exclusive right to authorize and regulate the movement of people.
What is remarkable about all these regulations from our contempo- rary standpoint is that the group whose movements the defenders of the revolution were concerned to regulate consisted primarily of their fel- low French citizens.
Toward the end of the year, however, the deputies came around to the view that the restrictions on movement within France, at least, were proving counterproductive. The Constitution of and the elimination of passport controls.
In one of his few sustained treatments of formal institutional environ- ments, the irreplaceable essay on “total institutions” in Asylums, 21 Goffman shows that the effort to impose control in such environments begins with systematic attempts to annihilate the “identities” – the selves – of their inmates.
Without descrip- tions les signalementsthis critic admonished, those who wished to slip out of the country would have had little difficulty doing so. These examples demonstrate clearly that restrictions on personal freedom of movement related directly to two central questions facing burgeoning modern states: The fight of the King and the Revolutionary renewal of passport control.
Consistent with this aim, the Czar in the early eighteenth century promulgated a series of decrees regulating the domicile and travel of Russian subjects. This fact sug- gests an alternative imagery to that of “penetration” for understanding the accumulation of infrastructural capacity by modern states. Indeed, the following passage from a manual for driver’s license tests issued by the State of California offers remarkably clear evidence of the profound importance that identification practices have assumed in modern times: On 6 Fructidor Year II 23 Augustthe Convention decreed that passports in the depart- ment of Paris would be issued by the comite civil without any longer having to be referred to the general assembly of the section, and would be visaed by the revolutionary committee of the arrondissement.
John Torpey. The Invention of the Passport; Surveillance, Citizenship and the State
Still, the decree bespoke a vindictive mood, especially against the poor. Much of the research for this book was carried out while I held ajean Monnet Fellowship at the European University Institute in Florence, Italy during Although the list of others I wish to thank is long, I hope this will not be regarded as merely a surreptitious effort at self-congratulation. Le Coz’s remarks betrayed the classic illiberal assumption, embodied for example in many nivention today’s drug-testing proposals, thw anyone who refused to cooperate with the authorities in these procedures was guilty – of something.
University of California, Berkeley Ph. Aside from merely authorizing domicile in particular places, certifi- cates of onvention were closely tied in to the provision of public welfare, particularly pensions.
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Search the history of over billion web pages on the Internet. Torpey No preview available – It was true, he conceded, that there were foreigners with strong antipathies toward the revolution, and he had no objection in principle to keeping them under surveillance.
Retrieved August 31, jlhn The steady stream of decrees and the frequency with which passport matters appear on the agenda of the Convention themselves point to this conclusion. A census was also to be kept so that the authorities would be in a position to inform the departmental directory about “the measures taken by the municipali- ties to prevent gatherings of foreigners” and “to insure the most exact policing with respect to foreigners.
Another deputy advanced a rather more creative response to the proposed law by turning its attack on vagabondage and brigandage into a justification for land redistribution: This innovative book argues that docu- ments such as passports, internal passports and related mechanisms have been crucial in making distinctions between citizens and non-citizens.
In order to monopolize the legitimate means of movement, states and the state system have been compelled to define who belongs and who does not, who may come and go and who not, and yhe make these distinctions intelligible and enforceable.
The tue for government services, the issuance of various licenses, the assessment of taxes, the right to vote, etc. There are, of course, virtues to this system – principally of a diplomatic nature – just as the expropriation of workers by capitalists allows propertyless workers to 4 COMING AND GOING survive as wage laborers and the expropriation of the means of violence by states tends to pacify everyday life.
The spread of identification documents such as passports was crucial to states’ monopolization of the legitimate means of movement.